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ret walls

hi I would like to get excel sheet for counterfort and buttress retaining wall
The retaining walls are relatively rigid walls which are used to support the ground mass laterally, so that the ground can be retained at different levels on both sides. Retaining walls are structures designed to restrict soil to a slope that would not hold naturally (typically a steep, almost vertical or vertical slope). They are used to join floors between two different elevations often in areas of the terrain that possess undesirable slopes or in areas where the landscape needs to be formed severely and headed for more specific purposes like hillside agriculture or upper road passes . A retaining wall is a structure designed and constructed to withstand the lateral pressure of the ground when there is a desired change in elevation of the ground exceeding the angle of rest of the ground.

A basement wall is thus a type of retaining wall. But the term generally refers to a cantilevered retaining wall, which is an independent structure without lateral support at its top. These are cantilevered from a jogging and rise above the degree on one side to retain a higher degree of level on the opposite side. Walls must withstand the lateral pressures generated by loose floors or, in some cases, water pressures.

Each retaining wall holds a "wedge" of earth. The wedge is defined as soil extending beyond the plane of failure of the soil type present at the site of the wall, and can be calculated once the angle of soil friction is known. As the wall recoil increases, the size of the sliding wedge is reduced. This reduction reduces the pressure on the retaining wall.

The most important consideration in the proper design and installation of retaining walls is to recognize and counteract the tendency of the retained material to move down due to gravity. This creates a lateral ground pressure behind the wall which depends on the internal friction angle (phi) and the cohesive strength © of the retained material, as well as the direction and magnitude of the movement that undergoes the retention structure.

The lateral earth pressures are zero at the top of the wall and - in homogeneous terrain - increase proportionally to a maximum value at the lowest depth. Pressures from the earth will push the wall forward or overturn if not properly addressed. In addition, any groundwater behind the wall that is not dissipated by a drainage system causes hydrostatic pressure on the wall. It can be assumed that the total pressure or thrust acts at one third of the lowest depth for longitudinal stretches of uniform height.

Unless the wall is designed to retain water, it is important to have adequate drainage behind the wall in order to limit the pressure to the design value of the wall. Drainage materials will reduce or eliminate hydrostatic pressure and improve the stability of the material behind the wall. Drystone containment walls usually drain by themselves.

As an example, the International Building Code requires that retaining walls be designed to ensure stability against rollover, landslide, excessive foundation pressure and water lifting; And they are designed for a safety factor of 1.5 against side slip and overturn.

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