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distance measurement using ultrasonic sensor and atmega16 microcontroller

distance measurement using ultrasonic sensor and atmega16 microcontroller

(09-10-2016, 01:27 PM)Guest Wrote: distance measurement using ultrasonic sensor and atmega16 microcontroller

The ultrasonic range finder is used to find the range of an obstacle or sensor wall. However, when there are inexpensive methods available to find range like IR sensor or even a combination of LED and LDR would do but the question is why do we use a more expensive sensor. The reason is:-

 IR sensors are not accurate
 The result varies from one object to another
 Calibration required
 Operates only for range of shot
Usually IR sensors have a range of 30-80 cm or even less depending on the manufacturer and also the LED's used. However, for an ultrasonic range finder, the distance can be precisely measured up to 400cm with an accuracy of 1cm.

[Image: ultrasonic.jpg?resize=413%2C300]

Ultrasonic range finders find application at the level of a liquid measurement, object detection. Also, the best thing about this sensor is that it does not require calibration; No analog to digital data conversion and code is not limited to any particular manufacturer sensor. The code will work with almost all the sensors available on the market.

Another advantage of using the ultrasonic sensor is that the ultrasonic waves are narrower than the infrared or any other sound beam. This is useful for detecting objects that are exactly in line with the sensor.
In this tutorial we will find the distance of any object. You should know how to use AVR timers. However, as mentioned above, you can use any other sensor, but before you buy just make sure these sensors are compatible with the microcontroller.

The sensors I use are a 4-pin sensor, one for Vcc, one for ground and the other two pins are echo and trigger. However, there are sensors, which have three pins, mainly Vcc, ground and the third pin to connect to the microcontroller. The operating principle is virtually the same, but will have an input line instead of two and also, since the input line number has changed, the encoding also changed, but the main logic will remain the same. If you want to interconnect these types of sensors, you can comment below and give you the necessary changes or algorithm.
The lord will usually have all the pins marked on the board itself. For the sake of the tutorial, I will use a HC-SR04 sensor. The operation to follow is: -
 Send a short 10us boost, but long enough on the pin
 Wait for the echo line to rise
 Length of line length that is kept high
According to the data sheet you should send trigger pulse after an interval of 50us or more. I am also using the AVR on the external 12MHz crystal. If you are using any other glass, make sure that you load the timers correctly.

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